Section three: translation activities
A. translates the following passage into Persian.
A framed structure in any material is made stable by a skeleton that is able to stand by itself as a rigid structure without depending on floors or walls to resist deformation. Materials such as wood, steel, and reinforced concrete, which are strong in both tension and compression, make the best members for framing .masonry skeleton, which cannot be made rigid without walls, are not frames. the heavy timber frame .in which large posts .spaced relatively far apart ,support thick floor and roof beams ,was the commonest type of construction in the far east and northern Europe from prehistoric times to the mid-19the century .it was supplanted by the American light wood frame ,composed of many small and closely spaced members that could be handled easily and assembled quickly by nailing instead of by the slow joinery and dowelling of the past(figure8-2).
Construction is similar in the two systems, since they are both based on the post and lintel principle. posts must rest on a level ,waterproof foundation ,usually of masonry or concrete ,on which the sill (base member)is attached .each upper story is laid on crossbeams supported on the exterior wall by horizontal members .interior walls give additional beam support.
In the orient the spaces between are enclosed by light screen walls, and in northern .Europe partly by thinner bracing members and partly by boards panels or(in half-timbered construction)bricks or earth.
The light frame, however, is sheathed with vertical or horizontal boarding or shingling, which is jointed or overlapped for weather protection .sheathing helps to brace as well as to protect the frame, so the frame is not structurally independent as in steel frame construction.
Steel framing is based on the same principles but is much simplified by the far greater strength of the material, which provides morerigidity with fewer members (figure8-3).the load _bearing capacity of steel is adequate for buildings many times higher than those made of other materials .because the column and beam are fused by riveting or welding stresses are distributed between them, and both can be longer and lighter than in structures where they work independently as post and lintel.
B .find the Persian equivalents of the following terms and expression and write them in the spaces provided.
3 .bonding material
13. Durable materials
29. Solid system
35. Vertical joints
36. Weather resisting